HINTERGRUND, Heft 03 -10 - Der Konflikt zwischen China und den USA vertieft sich
Aufstrebende und niedergehende ökonomische Mächte:
Der Konflikt zwischen China und den USA vertieft sich
Von JAMES PETRAS
Anmerkungen und Quellen:
1. Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1936-1945 Vol. 2 (London: 2008) According to the eminent scholar, Frederick Clairmont, “For Hitler, India was a model of a predatory colonial empire, ‘The Soviet Union will be our India’ he jubilantly declaimed.” “Operation Sea Lion: Looking Back” letter to colleague at the Sorbonne, April 2010.
2. Gabriel Kolko, The Politics of War (New York: Pantheon 1990).
3. Chalmers Johnson, Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic (New York: Metropolitan Books 2007).
4. James Petras “The US and China: One Side is Losing, the Other is Winning” and “US and China: Provoking the Creditor, Hugging the Holyman,” petras.lahaine.org.
5. Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan (New York: Harper Collins 2000).
6. Edward Miller, Bankrupting the Enemy: The US Financial Siege of Japan before Pearl Harbor (Annapolis MD: United States Naval Institute Press 2007) esp. Ch. 6 “Birth of the Embargo Strategy”, Ch. 7 “Export Controls”, Ch. 10 “Japan’s Vulnerabilities: Strategic Resources.”
7. James Petras and Morris Morley “The Imperial State” in James Petras et al. Class, State and Power in the Third World (Montclair: Allenheld and Osmun 1981).
8. Defense Strategy for the 1990’s published later as Defense Planning Guidance (draft 1992).
9. Diana Johnstone, Fools Crusade: Yugoslavia, NATO and Western Delusions (Monthly Review: NY 2002).
10. The neo-conservative manifests is emblematic of this rising power elite see The Project for the New American Century (Information Clearance House) September 2000.
11. On Israeli aligned US officials promoting the Iraq war see James Petras, The Power of Israel in the United States (Atlanta: Clarity Press 2006).
12. China’s kin-class ruling class has produced several hundred billionaires and probably the worst inequalities in Asia. See the Financial Times (FT) March 30, 2010, p. 9.
13. China’s promotion and the growth of new high tech industries has led to tighter controls on foreign tech multi-nationals, FT February 22, 2010, p. 2. China has replaced the US as the biggest manufacturer of wind turbines and producer of “clean coal”, FT Special Report on Energy March 29, 2010. On China’s increasing control of its economy see FT April 8, 2010, p. 9.
14. In almost every issue of the Financial Times there is at least one article blaming China for “global imbalances”. See FT March 31, 2010, p. 3, FT April 6, 2010, p. 3 and p. 8.
15. The US military budget has more than doubled over the past ten years, reaching one trillion dollars of which 70% is current expenditures in ongoing wars and preparation for new wars, the rest for pensions and other payments for past wars.
16. Both in the case of Kenya and what was previously called Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), British imperial officials facing prolonged resistance agreed to an independence which included generous compensation for property losses to settlers.
17. See Petras, Power of Israel in the United States op cit; Zionism, Militarism and the Decline of the US Power (Atlanta: Clarity Press 2008.
18. This is especially the case where the Zionist power configuration in the government has promoted sanctions against Iran, Syria and earlier against Iraq. China has moved in with a 5 billion dollar investment in Iranian gas fields, one among many new investments, Global Research, March 8, 2010.
19. By 2010 China, as well as India to a growing extent, was replacing the US as the main importer of Saudi oil. FT February 22, 2010, p. 4.
20. Per capita Israel has the biggest armed forces, the most fighter planes and nuclear bombs in the world. Next to the US it has invaded more countries than all the rest of the Middle East countries combined.
21. Chalmers Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire (Owl Books, New York 2005).
22. Beginning with President Clinton (2000) and continuing through to Obama, the US has poured over 6 billion dollars into Colombia, backing the military, secret police and death squads. The US has over a thousand military advisers and contract mercenaries operating in Colombia. The military agreements with Brazil and the rest of Latin America are on a vastly lesser scale of intrusion.
23. China’s displacement of the US as the dominant trading partner in major Latin American markets received only a tiny fraction of the attention that any visit by a prominent Israeli official.
24. US clients were overthrown in Kyrgystan (2010), defeated electorally in the Ukraine (2009) and confronted by mass opposition after a disastrous military adventure in Georgia.
25. James Petras, “US-Venezuela Relations: Imperialism and Revolution,” Dissident Voice, January 5, 2010.
26. See “China Mobile Group axes Google” FT March 25, 2010, p. 1; FT February 22, 2010, p. 2.
27. Congressional Research Services, “China’s Holdings of US Securities: Implications for the US Economy” July 30, 2009.
28. FT April 6, 2010, p. 8. Provides an account of the US Senate’s blame China with charges of “currency manipulation”.
29. Yang Yao “Renmibi Adjusted will not cure trade imbalances” FT April 12, 2010.
30. Stephan Roach “Blaming China will not solve America’s Problems,” FT March 30, 2010, p. 11.
31. A typical report on “bubble fears” is in the FT February 22, 2010. Two months later China had “cooled off” the bubble by forcing bank lending down by 43% in the first quarter. Al Jazeera, April 15, 2010.
32. Contrary to the charges of neglecting its domestic market, it is growing 15% over the past year. China’s imports are growing faster than their exports. See Jim O’Neill “Tough Talk on China ignore Economic Reality,” FT April 1, 2010, p. 9.
33. FT April 12, 2010, p. 3.
34. “Obama to press Hu on Teheran Sanctions”, FT April 13, 2010, p. 3.
35. At a G20 meeting the US circulated a letter condemning China but only five countries signed it. (The FT headline was deceptive). “G20 attack China on exchange rate”, FT March 31, 2010, p. 3.
36. China is steaming ahead on clean energy, over taking the US during 2009 to become the leading investor in renewable energy technologies, a 79% rise in installed capacity in 5 years. BBC News, March 26, 2010.
37. FT April 12, 2010, p. 22. Growth projections based on first quarter of 2010.
38. Al Jazeera, March 12, 2010.
39. China Daily, March 24, 2010 for differences between US and Chinese approach to Afghanistan.
40. The dynamic push to secure raw materials is illustrated by massive investments in iron mines in Russia and Africa, FT April 13, 2010, p. 17.
41. Al Jazeera, March 5, 2010.
42. US-China trade now represents only 12% of total Chinese trade. FT March 30, 2010, p. 11.
43. FT April 24/25 2010, p. 1. “Shanghai plans to equal New York as a global financial centre by 2020”.
44. FT April 13, 2010, p. 19.
45. “China vows to tackle the social divide” Al Jazeera, March 5, 2010.
46. For a similar call to “rebalance” the British economy from finance to manufacturing see Ken Coults and Robert Rowthorne U.K.: Either a Large Trade Surplus or Grim Prospects for Profits and the Fiscal Deficit cited in the FT April 14, 2010, p. 11.
47. By a margin of over 300 to 10 US Congress people signed a letter scripted by the pro Israel AIPAC backing Israel and demanding Obama retracts his “pressure” on Israel to desist from seizing Palestinian property. See FT April 24/25 2010, p. 3.
48. Waikeung Tam, “Privatizing Health Care in China: Problems and Reforms.” Journal of Contemporary Asia Vol 40(1), Feb. 2010, p. 63-81.
49. “US tightens missile-shield encirclement of China and Russia.” Global Research, March 4, 2010.